Definitions of Source Code Escrow, Source Code, and Escrow
In the computing world, all precious source code of an important software passes through what is termed as source code escrow, which simply means that the source code is deposited with the participation of a third party escrow agent. The source code of a software is a programmed coding language especially designed by the programmer and which is further processed by an assembler or a compiler into a binary machine code which easily readable by the computer. To protect a valuable source code of a software, this procedure is normally entrusted to a third party called an escrow agent, who is a lawyer and who holds the source code while a transaction is being finalized or that a disagreement is being resolved. It is the software developer that usually requests for an escrow to protect and maintain their softwares.
Difference between Licensee and Licensor
In extreme cases when the company or licensor fails to maintain and update the software as stipulated in the software license agreement or files for bankruptcy, the software source code will be released back to the licensee.
Employment and maintenance of a customized software is critical to many companies, such that they make sure that there is continuity of the software use even if the licensor is unable to continue. To be able to use the software continuously, the company can obtain a copy of the most updated version of the source code. It is in this situation where a source code escrow is needed.
Escrow and Its Agreements
To apply a source code escrow, a software licensing agreement is employed and agreed on involving three parties: one or several licensors, one or several licensees, and the escrow agent.
Below are the provisions in source code agreements.
The subject and scope of the escrow, which, respectively, refers to the software source code and the requirements of the licensee, require for independent maintenance of the following: documentation, software tools or specialized hardware.
Requiring the licensor to create updated versions of the software in specific intervals invoking the escrow.
Instruct that the software source code be released to the licensee by the escrow agent on the following conditions: bankruptcy of licensor, cancellation of a software development project, unwillingness of licensor to meet the contractual obligations.
A stipulation to allow the licensee to fix errors in the software or further develop the software once it is released back to the licensee.
Imply that the duties of escrow agents are custody and verification of the stored source code software such that it is readable to a computer.
The contract may include what is called a non-compete clause, which prohibits the licensee to employ the licensor’s employees once the software is released to the licensee.
And finally, the fees to the escrow agent.
Kinds of Escrow Agents
Before, lawyers were usually hired as escrow agents, but, nowadays, archives, museums and software communities are already considered to qualify as escrow agents.